Germanikeia

   City situated at the foot of the Antitaurus mountain range, facing the plain of Mesopotamia (q.v.). Its history symbolizes the centuries-long frontier warfare between Byzantium and Islam (qq.v.). The Arabs (q.v.) conquered it in 637 and made it a base for their raids into Asia Minor (q.v.). Constantine V (q.v.) captured it in 746, dismantled its fortifications, and evacuated some of the population to Thrace (q.v.). The Abbasids (q.v.) reoccupied it in 768; Harun al-Rashid (q.v.) strongly fortified it. Theophilos (q.v.) recaptured it in 841, after which the city changed hands a number of times until it was taken by Nikephoros II Phokas (q.v.) in 963 while on expedition to Aleppo (q.v.). In the late 11th century it was briefly part of an Armenian principality under Philaretos Brachamios, but soon fell to the Seljuks (q.v.) before returning briefly to Alexios I Komnenos (q.v.). In 1104 the Crusaders regained it and made it part of the county of Edessa (q.v.). In 1152, after the fall of Edessa, Germanikeia was occupied by Nur al-Din (q.v.). Nestorios (q.v.) was born in Germanikeia, ironically so since it became a stronghold of Monophysitism (q.v.). Leo III (q.v.), an Isaurian (q.v.) according to Theophanes the Confessor (q.v.), actually came from Germanikeia.

Historical Dictionary of Byzantium . .

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